Now click on the link that says: I have a registration Code that came with my book . | When asked to enter your code, type in your Unique Access Number. References: 1. Object –Oriented –Programming in C++ by E Balagurusamy. 2. Object –Oriented –Programming with ANSI & Turbo C++ by Ashok N. Kamthane. Language English. E BalaguruSamy – C++. Identifier EBalagurusamyObjectOrientedProgrammingWithC. Identifier-ark ark:// t0rr4g61p.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. I have a registration code that came wFth my book. A prolific writer, he has authored a large number of research papers and several books. His best selling books, among others include: The program listings if any balaugruswamy be emered, stored and executed in a computer system, but they may rial be reproduced for publication. Nilanjan Chukravartx Senior Copy Kditor: Dipika Dry Senior Ptoduciion Manager: P L Pnaditu General Manager: Byu Gancsan Controller — Production: Dagra Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGraw-Hill, from sources believed lo be reliable, However, neither Tats McOraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any emus, omissions.

This work is published with the understanding that Tata McGraw-Hill and lis. Sector 64, Noida – Cover: IH Type Cast Operator 57 3.

Extendi njj Classes SI Introduction 20 1 8. Random Aebhk Object-Oriented Systems Development 46H Project Appendix B: New tools and techniques are announced in quick succession. This hnn forced the software engineers, and industry to continuously look for now approaches to software design and development h and they balaguruswa,y becoming more and more critical in view of the increasing complexity of software systems as well as the highly competitive nature of the industry.

These rapid advances appear to have created a situation of crisis within the industry. The following issues need to be addressed to face this crisis: How to develop modules that are tolerant to any changes in future? Many balagiruswamy products are either not finished, or not used, or else are delivered with major errors. Figure 1,1 shows the fate of the US defence software projects undertaken in the s.

This illustrates that the software industry has a remarkably bad record in delivering products, 3.


It only illustrates that, in a changing world with a dynamic business environment, requests for change are unavoidable and therefore Systems must be adaptable and tolerant to changes, These studies and other reports on software implementation suggest that software products should be evaluated carefully for their quality before they are delivered and implemented. Some of the quality issues that must be considered for critical evaluation are: Maintainability 3, Reusability 4. Integrity B, User friendliness Selection and uac of proper software tools would help resolving some of these issues.

These avers were built up one by one over the. In software systems, each of the layers continues to be functional whereas in the balxguruswamy of trees, only the uppermost layer bxlaguruswamy functinna]. To build today’s complex software it is just not enough to put together a sequence of programming statements and sets balaguriswamy procedures and modules; we need to incorporate sound construciiun techniques Esrsd prrigrarn structures that are easy to comprehend, implement antl msidiFy.


Structured programming was a powerful tool that enabled programmers to write moderately complex programs fairly easily. However, as the programs grew larger, even the structured approach failed to show the desired results in terms of hug- free, efrSyto-maintgun, and reusable pragTH rans. It is a new way of organizing and developing programs and hah nothing to kops with any particular language.

However, riot all languages are suitable to implement the OOP concepts easily, 1 1. A number of functions are written to accomplish these tasks. The primary focus is on functions, A typical program structure for procedural programming is shown in Fig. The technique of hierarchical decomposition hag been used to specify the tasks to balaguryswamy completed for solving a problem. We normally use a flowchart to organize these actions and balagurussamy the flow of control from one action to another.

While we concentrate on the development of functions, very little attention is given tn the balqguruswamy that are being used by various functions. What happens to the data?

How are they affected by the functions that work on khejn? In a multi-function program, many important data items are placed global bo that they may be accessed by all the functions. Each function may have ita own local data. Figure 1,6 Hhowfi the relationship of data and functions in a procedure-oriented program. Global data are more vulnerable Lo an inadvertent change by a function.

In a large pretfram it is balaguuruswamy difficult to identify what data is used by which function, hi case we need to revise an external data structure, we also neefJ to revise all functions that access the data, Thia provides an opportunity for hugs to creep in.

Another serious drawback with the procedural approach is that it does not model real world problems very well. Thia is because functions are action-oriented and do not really correspond to the elements of the problem. Emphasis is on doing things, c algorithms. Employs top-down approach in program design. I I t ObjtTt-Oriciitcd Programming Paradigm Tht- major motivating; factor in the invention of object-oriented approach is to remove some of the flaws encountered in the procedural approach, Balaguruwamy treats data as a critical element in the program development and does not allow it to flow freely around the system.

It ties data more closely to the functions that operate on it, and protect it from accidental modification from outside functions. The organization of data and functions in object-oriented programs is shown in Fig.

The data of an object can be accessed only by the functions associated with that object. N L-w data and functions can be easily added whenever necessary. Follows bottom-up approach in program design. It 13 therefore important to have a working definition of object-oriented programming before balaguruswammy proceed further. Since the memory partitions are independent, the objects can be used in a variety of different programs without modifications. They may represent a person.

They may also represent user-defined data such as vectors, time and lists, Programming problem is analyzed in terms of objects and the nature of communication between them.

Program objects should be chosen such that they match closely with the real -world objects. Objects take up space in the mcrnury unci have an associated address like a record in PascaL or a structure in C. When a program is executed, the objects interact by sending messages to one anuther. Each object contains data, and code to manipulate the data. Objects can interact without having to know details of each other’s data or code. It is sufficient to know the type of message accepted, and the type of response returned by the objects.


Although different authors represent them differently. The entire set of data and code of an object can be made a user-defined data type with the help of a Copyrighted material J-Yinciples of Object-Oriented. In fact, objects are variables of the type dam. Once a class has been defined, we can create any number of objects belunying to that dass. Each object is associated with the data of type class with which they are created- A class is thus ft collection of objects of similar type.

For example, mango, apple and orange are members uf the cJaas. Glasses are user-defined data types and behave like the built-in types of a programming language.

If fruit hag been defined as a class, then the statement frutt mango; will create an object mango belonging to the class fruit. Data Abstraction and Encapsulation The wrapping up of data and functions, into a single unit called class is known as encapniiiatwn. Date encapsulation is the most striking feature of a class, The data is not accessible to the outside world, and only those functions which are wrapped in the class can access it.

These functions provide the interface between the object’s data and the program. This insulation of the data from direct access by the program is called data hiding or information hiding.

Full text of “E Balagurusamy Object Oriented Programming With C++”

Abstraction refers to the art of representing essential features without including the background details or explanations. The functions that operate on these data are sometimes called methods or member functions. Inheritance Inheritance is the process- by which objects of one class acquire the properties of objects of another elasa. It supports the concept of hierarcfiicxit clnsRificatinTi. The principle behind this Sort of division is that each derived class shares common characteristics with the class from which it lh derived balaguruwsamy illustrated in Fig.

In OOP, the concept of inheritance provides the idea of reusability. Baalaguruswamy means that we can add additional features to an existing class without modifying it. This is possible by deriving a new class from the existing one.

Balaguruswamy OOP with C++

The new class will have the combined features of both the classes. The real appeal and power of the inheritance mechanism is that it allows the programmer to reuse a class that is almost, but not exactly, what he wants, and to tailor the class in such a way that it does not introduce any undesirable side-effects into the rest of the classes. Polymorphism, a Greek term, means the ability to take more than one form.

An ape rat ion may exhibit different behaviours in different instances. The behaviour depends upon the types of data used in the operation. For example, consider the operation of addition. For two numbers, the operation will generate a sum. Polymorphism plays an important role in allowing objects having different internal Ht. Polymorphism is extensively used in implementing inheritance. It is associated with polymorphism and inheritance, A function call associated with a polymorphic reference depends on the dynamic type of that reference.

Consider the procedure “draw” in Fig.