Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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The experimental condition involved telling the subject before the experiment started that it would be fun, while the control condition did not set any expectations for the task. The Control condition gives us, essentially, the reactions of S s to the 9159 and their opinions about the experiment as falsely explained to them, without the experimental introduction of dissonance. Theory of Reasoned Action. These recordings were transcribed and then rated, by two independent raters, on five dimensions.

After reading the reports about the various products, individuals rated the products again.

In conclusion, people, when persuaded to lie without being given enough justification, will perform a task by convincing themselves of the falsehood, rather than telling a lie. In Festinger and Carlsmith’s experiment, 11 of the 71 responses were considered invalid for a couple of reasons. These made them question what the real purpose of the study is.

The interview consisted of four questions, on each of which the S was first encouraged to talk about the matter and was then asked to rate his opinion or reaction on an point scale. Two studies reported by Janis and King ; clearly showed that, at least under some conditions, the private opinion changes so as to bring it into closer correspondence with the overt behavior the person was forced to perform. The results on this festinget are shown in the second row of figures in Table 1.

Cognitive dissonance

According to Festinger and Carlsmith, the participants experienced dissonance between the conflicting cognitions of telling someone that carllsmith particular task is interesting when the truth is, they found it rather uninteresting and boring. Forced compliance theory is being used as a mechanism to help aid in projections of cognitive dissonance theory. Conflict, decision, and dissonance Vol.


The E then removed the tray and spools and placed in front of the S a board containing 48 square pegs. They were told that a sample of students would be interviewed after having served as S s. If a person is induced to do or say something which is contrary to his private opinion, there will be a tendency for him to change his opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has done or said.

I’m calsmith you’ll enjoy it. The present experiment was listed as a two-hour experiment dealing with “Measures of Performance.

One S carlsmtih the One Dollar conditionimmediately after having talked to the girl, demanded her phone number saying he would call her and explain things, and also told the E he wanted to wait until she was finished so he could tell her about it. Recently Festinger proposed a theory concerning cognitive dissonance from carlsmithh come a number of derivations about opinion change following forced compliance.

One would then expect no differences at all among the three conditions. This point will be discussed further in connection with the results.

Forced compliance theory

Let us consider a person who privately holds opinion “X” but has, as a result of pressure brought to bear on him publicly stated that he believes “not X. Then a second half-hour was spent turning 48 square pegs mounted on a board by clockwise quarter-turns. I do not like Fred; I agreed to give him a ride to a job interview.

Fextinger ratings were of course done in ignorance of which condition each S was in.

Aim To investigate the relationship between dissonance and effort. Participants in the high-dissonance condition chose between a highly desirable product and one rated just 1 point lower on the 8-point scale. This associate was presented to “Group B” students taking part in the experiment as being another student who had just finished his own experimental session.

For example, thinking smoking causes lung cancer will cause dissonance if a person smokes. The results are weakly in line with what one would expect if the dissonance were somewhat reduced in this manner.

I believe the task I just did was boring; I told someone else that task was exciting and fun.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

It is also a strong motivational tool in influencing us to choose one action or thought over another. Check out our quiz-page with tests about: This produces a feeling of mental discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors caglsmith reduce the discomfort and restore balance.


It was at this point that the treatment of the three groups of subjects i. One involved adolescents and adults and another involved high school-aged participants. These S s were treated identically in carldmith respects to the S s in festinver experimental conditions, except that they were never asked to, and never did, tell the waiting girl that the experimental tasks were enjoyable and lots of fun.

Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. Retrieved from ” https: Ans rating of how persuasive and convincing the S was in what he said and the way in which he said it. Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith conducted a study on cognitive dissonance investigating on the cognitive consequences of forced compliance.

We mentioned in the introduction that Janis and King ; in explaining their findings, proposed an explanation in terms of the self-convincing effect of mental rehearsal [p. But other factors would enter also.

Kelman tried to pursue the matter further. With no further introduction or explanation the S was shown the first task, which involved putting 12 spools onto a tray, emptying the tray, refilling it with spools, and so on. While it is true that the experiment took place in the 50s, the results are still being recognized up to this date. festingr

Festinger and Carlsmith’s study now began to treat the 71 subjects in different ways such as to investigate the cognitive consequences of induced compliance to see whether there would be any evidence of Cognitive Dissonance, where the student concerned was psychologically di-stressed between his actual views and the role he found himself taking on in compliance with the performance of the tasks set by the experimenter.

Let us then see what can be said about the total magnitude of dissonance in a person created by the knowledge that he said “not X” and really believes “X. Carlsmith conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”.